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Air Pollution

On average, 8 - 10 thousand litres of air pass through our nose, mouth and lungs every day. The causal link between pollution in the air we breathe, and many of the air pollution’s negative effects on our health are well known and documented. Countless research studies in the last 30 years have examined how air pollution affects different facets of our well-being.

FAQ about Air Pollution:

What is air pollution?
What is particulate matter (PM)?
What is gaseous air pollution?
What are the health effects of air pollution?
What are the main components of urban air pollution?
What is indoor air pollution?
What are the health effects of indoor air pollution?
How can I protect myself from air pollution?

 

What is air pollution?

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Air pollution is the introduction of any substance into the atmosphere that can cause harm to humans, or any other living organism, or to the surrounding environment. Air pollutants can occur in solid, liquid or gaseous form. They come from a very wide range of sources. Some, like transportation, industrial processes and cooking, relate to human activity. But natural processes, like the release of pollen grains and fungal spores, can also cause air pollution. The latter might not usually be considered as polluting but for people with hay fever and other allergies, allergens can be considered as pollutants.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency considers the following as the major air pollutants:

  • Particulate matter
  • Ozone
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Nitrogen oxides
  • Sulphur dioxide
  • Lead


According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), air pollution is responsible for an estimated 2.4 million deaths every year. The average adult breathes 3000 gallons of air every day and may be inhaling a cocktail of different particulate and gaseous pollutants, most of them invisible. Air pollution occurs both outdoors and indoors and causes a range of health problems, including asthma attacks, heart disease and lung disease. It has also been linked to lung cancer.

What is Particulate Matter (PM)?

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Particulate matter is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air. According to the World Health Organisation, particulate matter affects more people than any other pollutant. It is present in the air year-round. There are three classes of particulate matter:

1. PM10 – particles with a diameter of 10 microns or less but greater than 2.5 microns. Also known as coarse particles, PM10 is found near roadways and in dusty industrial settings.

2. PM2.5 – particles with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less. Also known as fine particles, PM2.5 is emitted into the air from sources such as fires, or may form in emissions from vehicles, power plants or heavy industry. PM2.5 is a major cause of reduced visibility (haze) occurring in polluted environments.

3. Ultrafine particles – particles with a diameter of 0.1 microns or less, and therefore on the nanoscale. There are a multitude of sources of ultrafine particles, including smoke, volcanic lava, ocean spray, vehicle exhausts, cooking, and office equipment including laser printers, photocopiers and fax machines.

PM2.5 is more harmful to health than PM10, because these smaller particles can be inhaled deeper into the lungs. Ultrafine particles may be more harmful still, although less research has been carried out on this category of particle. Particles with diameters larger than 10 microns tend to settle, rather than remaining airborne and so are not inhaled. Fine and ultrafine particles can remain suspended in the air and may travel through great distances.

Diesel exhaust is probably the major source of outdoor particulate matter, emitting particles ranging in size from 1 - 10 microns, while coal and tobacco smoke contain very small particles, down to just 0.1 micron in size. Pollution from diesel exhaust is a problem in city centres and near busy roads used by Lorries and vans. Diesel is oily and when it burns it produces particulate matter consisting of carbon flakes coated with chemicals derived from incomplete combustion of the fuel.

What is gaseous air pollution?

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O3 - Ozone
Ground-level ozone is produced by chemical reactions occurring between nitrogen oxides and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from car exhaust fumes, industrial emissions and other sources in the presence of sunlight. Ozone is a highly reactive form of oxygen and a powerful pollutant. This so-called ground-level ozone differs from the ozone layer which is found in the stratosphere and is protective against the harmful effects of sunlight. Ground ozone levels in air tend to peak in late afternoon and early evening. The highest levels of ozone tend to occur in summer time and on sunny days. Ground-level ozone is the major component of smog. To find out more visit our Ozone Information Page.

Co2 - Carbon monoxide
A colourless, odourless gas. Carbon monoxide is emitted by combustion processes, outdoors by vehicles and indoors by poorly installed and maintained heating systems, gas stoves and water heaters.

NOx - Nitrogen oxides
This is the name given to a group of highly reactive gases comprising nitrogen dioxide, nitrous acid, and nitric acid. The exhausts of cars, trucks and buses are the major source of NOx pollution.

SO2 - Sulphur dioxide
An acidic gas, sulphur dioxide is emitted from fossil fuel power stations and other industrial facilities.

Pb - Lead
The main source of lead pollution used to be car exhausts, but that has stopped thanks to lead-free petrol. Today lead pollution is found around lead smelters. Other sources include metal processing and certain aircrafts still using leaded fuel.

What are the health effects of air pollution?

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The size of the particulate in air pollution matter is related to its health risk. The smaller the particle, the more able it is to get into the lungs and even the bloodstream. People with heart and lung disease, children and older adults are most vulnerable to the health impact of particulate matters; there is a link with premature death in those with heart and lung disease. Chronic exposure to particulate matter contributes to the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and of lung cancer. In less developed countries, where indoor wood burning stoves are common, particulate matter from combustion increases the risk of acute lower respiratory infection and associated mortality among young children. It is also a risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Mortality in cities with high levels of pollution exceeds that in cleaner cities by 15-20%.

Particulate matter aggravates asthma symptoms, decreases lung function, and causes a general increase in respiratory symptoms like coughing and breathlessness. Exposure to particulate matter is also linked to irregular heartbeat and non-fatal heart attacks.

Ozone
Exposure to ozone can trigger asthma, reduce lung function, and cause breathing problems. Studies have shown that daily mortality goes up by 0.3% and that for heart disease by 0.4% per 10 microgram/cubic metre increase in ozone exposure. Repeated exposure may cause permanent lung damage.

Carbon monoxide
This gas interferes with the transport of oxygen through blood to organs and tissues. Exposure can be very dangerous for those with existing heart conditions, because they already have impaired oxygen-carrying capacity. At very high levels, exposure to CO can be fatal.

Nitrogen oxides
Long-term exposure to nitrogen oxides increases symptoms of bronchitis in asthmatic children. Research has also shown an increase in emergency room visits and hospital admissions for lung problems, especially asthma, after exposure to short-term increases in NOx. Such exposures are more likely among those spending time on or near major roads.

Sulphur dioxide
This pollutant causes irritation of the eyes, and also inflames the lungs, with coughing and aggravation of asthma and bronchitis. Hospital admissions and mortality from heart disease increase on days of high sulphur dioxide levels. Similarly, higher levels are linked with more admissions for respiratory illness, particularly among children, the elderly, and people with asthma.

Lead
Exposure to lead can affect the nervous system, the kidneys, immunity, the reproductive system, and the heart. Infants and young kids are especially sensitive to even low levels of lead, which may lead to reduced IQ and behavioural problems.

What are the main components of urban air pollution?

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Heavy traffic and areas of industrial activity are the main sources of urban air pollution. Vehicles emit nitrogen oxides, polluting in themselves and also capable of reacting with Volatile Organic Compounds on sunny days to form ground level ozone. Diesel exhaust is a major source of PM pollution. Therefore, anyone living by or spending time near congested roads is at risk from the health effects of urban pollution. Sulphur dioxide levels may be high in the vicinity of heavy industry and coal-fired power stations.

What is indoor air pollution?

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Well-insulated and poorly ventilated homes, workspaces and schools expose us to a variety of indoor air pollution. Not only does external air pollution accumulate indoors, but structural components, internal fittings in buildings, heating devices, furniture, carpets, paints and cleaning products, can form a toxic indoor atmosphere. Nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and sulphur dioxide among others irritate the airways and exaggerate allergic reactions.

Indoor air pollution comes from:

  • Building materials
  • Furniture and furnishings
  • Cooking, Heating
  • Smoking
  • Using products like paints, varnishes, cleaning products
  • Outdoor pollution entering through cracks and leaks in a building
  • Natural radon gas entering from the basement of a building – maybe less of a concern for those with allergies, but a proven cause of lung cancer.


Indoor pollutants from these sources include: nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, radon and tobacco smoke, allergens like mould and house dust mite, and Volatile Organic Compounds. While there is plenty of scientific evidence for the health impacts of carbon monoxide and radon, lack of research and monitoring mean that less is known about the dangers of exposure to other indoor pollutants.

What are the health effects of indoor air pollution?

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The health effects of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter pollution are described above. Other health effects of indoor air pollution include:

  • Tobacco smoke reduces lung function, triggers asthma attacks and irritates eyes.
  • Allergens trigger rhinitis and asthma. The main allergens in the home are house dust mite droppings, fungal particles, pet dander and pollen.
  • Volatile Organic Compounds irritate the lungs, with children being especially vulnerable. They include both natural and synthetic chemicals like formaldehyde, coming from several sources including construction products, cleaning products, air fresheners, paints and electrical goods.


To find out more visit our Indoor Air Pollution page.

How can I protect myself from air pollution?

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In the UK, there is a nationwide network of air quality monitoring stations. You can check out outdoor air pollution data on the Defra website. We are bound by EU air quality legislation which is mainly focused upon levels of PM and nitrogen oxides pollution.

Here are some handy tips for avoiding exposure to outdoor pollution:

  • If you are driving behind a diesel vehicle, like a lorry, taxi or bus, keep your car windows closed and keep your distance to protect yourself from the exhaust fumes.
  • Report any vehicle pumping out black smoke to the Vehicle Operator and Services Agency.


There is also a lot you can do to improve your indoor air quality. Here are some suggestions:

  • A High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) purifier combined with an activated carbon filter can remove both particulate and gaseous indoor pollution. This might be a particularly wise investment if you happen to live in an urban environment.
  • Vacuum and damp-dust regularly to keep dust levels down.
  • Try to eliminate materials that produce Volatile Organic Compounds like formaldehyde such as chipboard, glues and paints.
  • Keep your home well ventilated and free of damp to get rid of mould spores.
  • Make sure gas appliances are regularly serviced to eliminate nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide pollution.

Air Pollution - Information and FAQs | Allergy Cosmos Articles

NOx air pollution - what is it and what can be done about it? In this post we tell you everything you need to know about NOx air pollution – what it is and what you can do about it.
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Professor Jon Ayres This week Allergy Cosmos spoke with Professor Jon Ayres as part of our series of interviews with allergy, asthma and air pollution experts across the UK. It is our hope that reading about these experts' opinions and research work will provide you with valuable insight into your own life with allergy, asthma and general air pollution.

Jon Ayres, is Professor of Environmental and Respiratory Medicine at the University of Birmingham. Prof. Ayres received his science and medical degrees at Guys Hospital, London, and has been in his post at the University of Birmingham since 2008.


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It has long been known that exposure to air pollution, both indoor and outdoor, will exacerbate pre-existing asthma. But does air pollution cause asthma? That is a different question and one which is quite difficult to answer with certainty.
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exposure to particulate pollution A new scientific analysis of pollution data and recorded deaths reveals that fine particulate pollution exposure is linked to natural-cause mortality in a number of European countries, including the United Kingdom, The Netherlands and Switzerland. The new report is part of the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)...
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health risk of air pollution New estimates released by the World Health Organisation (WHO) reveal that air pollution, both indoor and outdoor, is a more serious threat to human health than previously realised. In 2012, around seven million people died as a result of air pollution exposure. That is one in eight of all deaths, globally, making air pollution the single greatest environmental health risk in the world.
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UK air pollution The European Commission (EC) has, it seems, finally lost patience with the UK’s failure to comply with an EU air pollution directive that came into force in 2008. It is concerned, particularly, over levels of nitrogen dioxide, a known pollution threat to health, in many areas of Britain....
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China moves on air pollution At last, it appears that the Chinese government has seen where it is going wrong – namely, that promoting development fuelled by coal is threatening the health of the population, through pollution exposure. Now there is to be a ban upon the construction of new coal-fired power plants around the cities of Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou.
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Air Pollution Kills It is tragic that 13 cyclists have died on London's roads so far this year. But did you know that nearly 13 people a day die from inhaling pollution in the capital? It's long been known that air pollution causes 4,000 Londoners to die prematurely each year...
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Invisible World of Air Pollution Every year in June, the Green Week Conference - the biggest annual conference on European environmental policy, is held in Brussels. The conference offers a unique opportunity for debate and exchange between non-governmental organisations, scientists and regulators that are involved in protecting the environment...
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London Air Pollution London air pollution is a significant cause of ill health and governments, both local and national, are under pressure to clean up, with tougher environmental legislation. In London, Mayor Boris Johnson has introduced a number of measures in recent years with the aim of improving the capital's air quality.
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air pollution from landscape fire Air pollution from landscape fire includes forest, grassland, peatland and agricultural fires. This kind of fire can occur naturally, and is on the increase because of global warming. Landscape fire may also be started deliberately because of agricultural practices, clearing tropical rain forest, or arson. Like all forms of combustion – gas cookers, cigarette smoking
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Singapore's air pollution Residents of Singapore were shocked, recently, when a dense cloud of air pollution suddenly descended upon their city-state. When air pollution in Singapore was measured, it was in the hazardous zone and even 'off the scale', leaving many fearing for their health. The incident is reminiscent of high levels of pollution reported from Beijing last year and earlier this year, although the cause is actually quite different.
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exposure to air pollution The reason for our exposure to air pollution on a day to day basis is that air pollution is made up of substances which move through the air from the source – vehicle exhausts or industrial plants for example. Air pollution in the developed world is mostly invisible, so you can't see it moving and you can not visibly tell your exposure to air pollution. The movement of pollution over short and long distances is complicated and still the subject of research. However, there are some basic scientific laws which govern the movement and our exposure to air pollution.
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state of the air The American Lung Association recently revealed its State of the Air 2012 report which gives citizens, including business travellers and relocators, the information they need to be aware of the impact of air pollution on health. The take-home message is, that despite advances in environmental legislation in the United States, nearly half the population is still exposed to potentially harmful levels of ozone and particulate matter (PM) pollution. And nearly four million people (that’s about 2% of the US population) are exposed to harmful levels of ozone and short-term and long-term PM pollution.
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Air Pollution Trends A new report from the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) tells us that there has been a long-term decrease in air pollutant emissions over the period 1970-2011. Six of the major pollutants are measured and they all show a different level, and rate, of decrease. Each one tells its own story, which depends upon what the sources of the pollutant are, and how levels have been affected, over the last four decades, by legislation and changing behaviour.
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allergic to air pollution Is there a way to prove that I’m more allergic to air pollution than other people?

When it comes to air pollution and asthma, it may indeed be the case that you are more allergic to air pollution than other people. It has long been known that exposure to air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, is a potent trigger for asthma attacks among those people who already have asthma. What was not known was whether air pollution is also a primary cause of asthma.


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art applied to air pollution Pollution from traffic exhaust is known to play a role in childhood asthma and, in London, many children go to school close to areas of traffic congestion. Increasing awareness of the health hazards posed by urban air pollution is therefore important, so the citizens of London can press for tighter environmental legislation.
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Hong Kong air pollution Hong Kong is the richest city in China so it should be able to afford to put decent air pollution measures in place. Unfortunately, it appears that Hong Kong's air quality threatens the health of its citizens and, if nothing is done quickly, the pollution problem will put people off thinking of relocating there – either for business or on vacation. In the long run, this will hurt the Hong Kong economy, as well as the population's health. The signs are already there, office space provider Regus carried out a survey of companies and learned that three quarters of them find that air quality is a factor making it hard to attract good employees from overseas.
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pollution from barbeques The summer season is almost upon us and that means (weather permitting) barbeques, working in the garden – and possible self-made outdoor pollution, which can severely affect people with asthma and allergies. Burning (combustion) of any kind, indoors or outdoors, produces nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and particulate pollution. Charcoal, wood, and garden rubbish are all 'dirty' fuels that emit ample pollutants when they are burned. In short, outdoor pollution doesn't just come from vehicle exhausts – it can also arise from summer activities. So follow these tips to have fun, while not triggering asthma attacks or exacerbating heart or lung problems through exposure to air pollution.
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mumbai's air pollution It is a pity that Mumbai's air pollution is threatening the cities growing importance as a player on the global economic stage. Industrial emissions, the burning of refuse and vehicle exhausts are combining to produce unacceptably high levels of nitrogen oxides and Particulate Matter (PM) in Mumbai's air. The population of the city has grown dramatically in recent years, and has now reached 18 million – the fourth highest in the world and the most densely populated. The World Health Organization (WHO) urban air pollution database finds that average levels of PM10 pollution in Mumbai is 132 micrograms per cubic metre. Even though Mumbai's air is very polluted, it is far from being the most polluted city in the world.
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China's particulate pollution In a new study published in Environmental Health Perspectives, Environmental Health Perspectives, Chinese researchers shed light on which components of PM2.5 pollution do the most damage to health. Previous work has shown that exposure to PM2.5s (particles less than 2.5 microns in size) are linked to heart and lung problems and to excess mortality. But it has not been known just what compounds in the PM2.5s do the most damage.

China has one of the highest concentrations of PM2.5 pollution in the world, but the impact that air pollution exposures have on the health of the Chinese population is not well understood.


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people with diabetes are affected by air pollution There is ample evidence that exposure to air pollution is risky for those with heart or lung disease. A new study, from public health researchers in Germany and the United States, highlights the hazard that pollution poses to people with diabetes which, itself, carries a risk of heart problems. The research focused on blood pressure which is known to be prone to fluctuations (high or low) as a result of the diabetes disease process. This team of researchers had already shown that increased PM (Particulate Matter) pollution exposure interferes with blood pressure regulation, as well as causing inflammation and impaired functioning in the lining of the blood vessels.
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air quality index The importance of PM2.5 air pollution has finally been recognised with the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affair (Defra) launching its new Daily Air Quality Index (DAQI) earlier this year. Previously, the index had not changed for 12 years. Defra took advice from the Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollution when redesigning the index.
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beijing air pollution After a number of scandals, it looks as if the government in Beijing has finally woken up to the fact that the city's air pollution is posing a serious problem to those living there, including those relocating from abroad for business reasons.

State media outlets have said that Beijing will act to reduce air pollution levels by 15% by 2015 and by as much as 30% by 2020. They will achieve this by phasing out the older, more polluting cars, closing down or relocating dirty factories, like cement works which emit a lot of dust, and they will also plant many new forests.


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uk fails to deal with air pollution Did you know that as many people (4,000) died from air pollution in London in 2008 as died in the Great Smog of 1952? That is the conclusion reached by the Environmental Audit Committee (EAC) in 'Air Quality: A follow up report.' Therefore, only smoking causes more premature deaths. In 1952, it was short-term exposure to heavy air pollution that caused the deaths. Today's air pollution deaths come from long-term exposure to PM2.5  pollution which consists of tiny soot particles coated with organic compounds that are inhaled deep into the lungs.
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city cycling cuts air pollution A study of the public cycle sharing scheme in Barcelona (called Bicing) reveals that the overall effects on health are positive, and there are significant reductions in carbon emissions. The results could be applicable to London, where a bike sharing scheme has been up and running since 2010 and has so far attracted over six million hires.

Bike sharing schemes in cities are meant to benefit our health by reducing traffic congestion. In fact, London was a little late to this particular party. Barcelona launched its scheme in 2007, the same year as Paris, Seville and a year later than Lyon and Stockholm. The idea has spread to China with Hangzhou starting a cycle sharing scheme in 2008 and Guangzhou last year. In the United States, Los Angeles and New York are likely to join in soon.


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cost of air pollution One of the enduring images of the World Trade Center terror attacks is of survivors fleeing amidst dense and choking clouds of debris issuing from the Towers. What toll might such massive exposure to dust pollution have on the long-term health of your lungs, and other body organs? What is the real cost of air pollution?
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what is in air pollution Air pollution is usually invisible. You normally only see it indoors when it settles as dust or as layers of grime on your furniture and other surfaces. In fact, air pollution is a complex mixture of liquid droplets, and solid particles, that come in a range of sizes classed as coarse, fine and ultrafine. These tiny particles are bombarding your body the whole time, indoors and outdoors. Some, like pollen grains, may make their presence felt by irritating your nose and eyes, as in an attack of hay fever. Others, like carbon monoxide molecules, may penetrate into your bloodstream and cause long-term damage to the heart. It pays to know a bit about the three main size classes of particle, so you can think about reducing your exposure.
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dangers of diesel pollution The dangers of diesel pollution is very obvious. Diesel exhaust emissions can inflame the lungs and increase airway resistance - and that’s just in healthy people. For those with asthma, exposure to diesel fumes can significantly worsen their asthma symptoms.
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London's Air Pollution out of Control Is air pollution in London now out of control? Simon Birkett, Director of Clean Air in London has just pointed out that the capital has, by far, the worst nitrogen dioxide pollution in Europe. London stands to face huge penalties from the European Commission, which oversees legal standards for pollution levels in Member States. A number of other areas in the UK are not far behind London's levels of nitrogen dioxide pollution (Eastern, East Midlands, Glasgow, Kingston upon Hull, Greater Manchester, North East, North West and Merseyside, The Potteries, Southampton, South East, South Wales, Teesside, West Midlands, West Yorkshire, and Yorkshire and Humberside).
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impact of air pollution Hardly a week goes by, it seems, without some new research on the impact of air pollution on health...this time, it’s about brain damage and the risks of exposure to air pollution to people who have had a lung transplant.
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air quality in london The London Olympics tickets have gone on sale and the pressure on the Government and Mayor Boris Johnson to improve on London air pollution. In a recent development, the European Commission (EC) granted the UK a temporary and conditional exemption for the Greater London area from the EU’s quality standards for PM10s, small airborne particles that have been linked with a range of health effects, including asthma.
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cycling and exposure to air pollution I will admit that, till now, I’ve not tried the London Cycle Scheme. One reason is that I was put off by the prospect of signing up and paying a deposit. However, I’m reconsidering and set out to investigate cycling and the exposure to air pollution.
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health hazards of air pollution Your heart as well as your lungs are at risk if you are exposed to air pollution, according to two new research stories. And there's worrying news about the dangers of 'third hand smoke' (as if second hand smoke wasn't enough of a danger to health). So here's my round-up of the latest news on air pollution and health:
  • A team of researchers at Toronto General Hospital studied the effect of exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) emitted from cars and burning fossil fuels on 25 healthy volunteers. They also did separate experiments on exposure to ozone, and to CAPs Ozone together.
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london air pollution problems London air pollution continues to be an issue. Late last year, the Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP) brought out the most detailed report to date on the impact of air pollution on the UK population.
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worried about swine flu I'll make no apology for returning to the subject of swine flu because the British Medical Journal has just put out an advisory note that I would like to share with you.

This follows the shocking news of the death of a healthy baby from H1N1 flu. Three year old Lana Ameen fell ill with what was apparently a cold on Christmas Eve and died just two days later. Now her mother, Gemma, is calling on health ministers to make H1N1 vaccine available to all children, not just those with risk factor asthma. Official advice remains that the flu jab should only be given to children aged six months and up who have risk factors. Whether this will change remains to be seen.


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does air pollution make you obese Researchers at Ohio State University have researched the question if air pollution manes you obese. Their research has revealed, for the first time, that exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes inflammation and changes in fat cells that lead to obesity, often a precursor of diabetes.
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Misunderstanding Air Pollution The air we and our children breathe day in and day out can be very polluted. But the consequences of being exposed to air pollution are often underestimated. The reason for this seems to be a fundamental misunderstanding of what air pollution actually is.
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london air pollution at dangerous levels The congestion charge is failing Londoners with asthma and other allergies. The scheme, introduced in 2003, is one of the biggest of its kind and its main aim is to get people off the roads and onto public transport by using a daily fee of £8 (orginally £5) as a financial disincentive to driving in central London. Although improving air quality wasn't in fact one of the aims of the scheme, a 24% decrease of PM10s (tiny particles that lodge in the lungs) was noted in a 2006 study. It makes sense - less traffic, fewer emissions equals less pollution. So it's very disappointing to hear that London is still one of the most polluted places in Europe.
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health hazards of volcano ash Exposure to volcano ash can cause acute respiratory morbidity, especially in those with pre-existing respiratory disease. Ultra fine air pollution such as volcanic ash and discharges of aerosol and acid gases can travel hundreds of kilometers and can cause health effects far from where they originated.

The majority of the deaths that are recorded as a result of volcano outbreaks are in relation to volcano induced famine, tsunamis, and mudflows.


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